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If permission for Cart JR is granted, either initially on the papers, or at an oral hearing, the Defendant is then required to respond fully and formally. Up to this point he will probably have relied upon "Summary grounds of opposition".

He must now set out the decision-maker's position in full, providing evidence in the form of witness statements explaining the history of the case, the procedure followed, the reasoning process and so on.

Once a case is granted permission to proceed with Cart JR, it will go on to a substantive hearing for Cart JR, unless settled or withdrawn, although occasionally there may be a pre-hearing known as a case management conference, or an interim relief hearing to take a view on an urgent element of the Cart Judicial Review (JR). Once permission is granted the defendant must submit detailed grounds of defense within a specified time frame (35 days from the date of permission grant). Nearer the hearing date counsel for both sides will submit written arguments as to why the claim should either be allowed (on behalf of the claimant) or dismissed (on behalf of the Defendant). These are called skeleton arguments.

The case will then have a substantive court hearing at which oral arguments are made by both the claimant and defendant. The court will then deliver a final judgment, which will either allow the claim and provide a form of relief in a court order, or dismiss the claim upholding the Defendant’s position.

Procedure At The Hearing

Procedure at the substantive hearing is very simple:

  • The Case will normally be heard by a single Judge from the Administrative Court Panel, that is Judges appointed to a panel because of their experience, and he will have read the papers beforehand;
  • Counsel appearing for the Claimant introduces the case, refers to the witness statements and addresses the Court about the law. Counsel will often refer to cases previously decided by the Courts which concern similar points of law (called "precedents" or "authorities");
  • The GLD's Counsel will then present the case in answer to the Claimant;
  • Finally the Claimant's Counsel will have the last word and will address the Court again on any points arising from the Defendant's case.
  • The Court then considers the rival arguments and delivers a decision, either immediately or after taking time for consideration (a judgment delivered later is called a "reserved judgment").

All parties are required to prepare in advance an outline ("skeleton") argument for the use of the Court at the substantive hearing. This is part of a tendency to encourage parties to reduce their case as much as possible to writing, though the Court will still be anxious to let everybody have their say. So far as witnesses are concerned, remember that the aim of Cart Judicial Review is to examine the legality of a decision of the Upper Tribunal refusing permission to appeal to the Upper Tribunal, and to ensure that proper procedure is followed: the Court is not well equipped to carry out a fact-finding exercise and will not normally embark upon one. For that reason it is rare for the witnesses who have made statements to be called to give oral evidence or to be cross-examined on their statements. There is power in the Court to order it, but it is rarely exercised. That is another reason why the duty of candour has to be observed.

Various Time Limits In Judicial Review In High Court

It may be helpful to set out in summary form the principal time limits set by the Rules.

  • Claimant required to file his Claim Form "promptly and in any event not later than 16 days from the date the refusal decision of the Upper Tribunal was sent;
  • Claimant must serve Claim Form on the Defendant within seven days after date of issue of Cart JR;
  • Defendant must file Acknowledgement of Service not later than 21 days after service of the Claim Form for Cart JR;
  • If permission refused on the papers, the Claimant may within 7 days request reconsideration at oral hearing;
  • If permission granted, the Defendant must file and serve his written evidence within 35 days after service of the order giving permission.

The Remedies Which The Court May Grant

The remedies which the Court may grant following a successful Judicial Review are:

  • A quashing order, by which the Court sets aside or cancels a decision (or subordinate legislation) found unlawful;
  • A prohibiting order, by which the Court forbids the public authority to perform an act found unlawful;
  • A mandatory order, by which the Court instructs the public authority to perform a public duty;
  • A declaration, by which the Court declares what the law is, for example that a decision is unlawful;
  • An injunction, usually an Order not to do something, but it can be positive;
  • Damages, by which (in limited circumstances) the Court can award financial compensation.
  • A declaration whereby the court can declare, by virtue of Section 4 of the Human Rights Act, that a certain provision of primary legislation is incompatible with a convention right.

In practice by far the most common order given by the Court to a successful Claimant is the quashing order on its own, even if the Claimant has sought, say, a prohibiting order with it. Where the Court has quashed a decision and remitted the matter to the decision-maker to make a fresh decision in accordance with the judgment of the Court, it will be unnecessary for the Court to add a prohibiting order as well.

Why Sunrise Solicitors For Cart Judicial Review (JR) Substantive Hearing?

The immigration solicitors at Sunrise Solicitors are experts in dealing with applications for judicial review. The quality of our service is self-evident from the reviews of our clients about the service provided by our immigration solicitors. You can contact us if you are seeking legal help from immigration solicitors in London or Manchester in relation to your judicial review substantive hearing following grant of permission to proceed with Cart JR and our immigration solicitors will provide you fast, friendly, reliable and professional immigration service.

What Work Will Be Covered By Our Services?

If instructed to represent you regarding your substantive Cart JR hearing before the High Court, the immigration casework to be carried out by our immigration solicitors will include the following:

  • Taking detailed instructions from you and advising you about the relevant immigration laws and procedures to be adopted by the High Court in your Cart JR substantive hearing at the High Court;
  • Discussing with you the grounds on which permission to proceed with the Cart JR has been granted and advising you about the weaknesses and strengths of Cart Judicial Review (JR);
  • Where applicable, liaising with the Government Legal Department (GLD) for the Cart Judicial Review to be settled with consent of both parties;
  • Preparing a detailed brief to counsel explaining in detail the case history and the key legal issues in the case;
  • Instructing the Barrister for skeleton arguments to be prepared to be submitted prior to the substantive hearing;
  • Preparing the Judicial Review bundles and serving the same on the High Court and the Government Legal Department (GLD);
  • Serving the skeleton arguments prepared by the Barrister on the High Court and the Government Legal Department (GLD);
  • Arranging a pre-hearing conference of the Claimant with the Barrister and assisting the Barrister in understanding the case against the Defendant and grounds for the same;
  • Attending the High Court substantive Cart Judicial Review (JR) hearing and assisting the Barrister in preparing for oral submissions before the High Court judge;
  • Doing all the follow up work until decision is reached by the High Court on your Cart Judicial Review claim.

Our Fees For Substantive Cart Judicial Review (JR) Hearing Following Grant Of Permission

You have the following funding options to fund your Cart Judicial Review (JR) Claim following grant of permission to proceed with your Cart JR:

No Win No Fee

  • We can act for you on no win no fee basis in relation to your Cart JR following grant of permission to proceed with Cart JR if we find that the chances of success in your Cart JR claim are 100%. The fee to be charged on No Win No Fee basis will be from £3,500 + VAT. If the claim for Cart Judicial Review is unsuccessful, you will not have to pay any fee.
  • You will also be responsible to pay any disbursements to be incurred by us on your behalf e.g. Barrister's fee, the court fee etc.

Agreed Fixed Fee

  • We will charge you a fee from £2,500.00 + VAT for our professional immigration services in relation to your substantive Cart JR hearing after the grant of permission to proceed with the Cart Judicial Review. The agreed fee will depend on the complexity of the Cart Judicial Review case and the casework involved in the Cart JR. The agreed fee will cover all our work until decision by the High Court judge on your application for Cart Judicial Review.
  • It is pertinent to note that the agreed fee will not cover any disbursements to be incurred by us on your behalf e.g. Barrister's fee, the court fee etc.

Hourly Rate Fee Option

  • You can choose to instruct us using hourly rate funding option. The hourly rate to be charged will range from £200 to £400 depending on the complexity of the Judicial Review (JR) matter and the Post Qualification Experience (PQE) of the solicitor handling the matter, etc.
  • You will also be responsible to pay any disbursements to be incurred by us on your behalf e.g. Barrister's fee, the court fee etc.